Fining, Copper & Oak addition Winemaking Calculator

  • Fining

    Fining is important part of the winemaking process where a fining agent is added to the wine to create an absorbent, enzymatic or ionic bond with the suspended particles, making them a larger molecule that can precipitate out of the wine easier and quicker. Fining agents is used to reduce astringency and remove tannins, microscopic particles and clarifying the grape juice or wines, they also take out some aroma and flavor. The fining agents can be organic and inorganic or mixtures of both. Some work electrochemically, with the agent having a positive charge attracting negatively charged particles and bind with them.

    Lab tests should be performed in order to determine the proper amount of the fining agent to be added to the wine.


    Volume of wine, must, juice
    Fining rate addition
    Amount of fining agent to be add
  • Copper Addition

    Copper sulfate (CuSO4) is a fining agent used to remove unpleasant hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and other “sulfide-like” off aromas in wine. The hydrogen sulfide is generally described as rotten-egg-like off aromas.H2S is volatile natural product of the fermentation and it can be present into the wine as mono-mercaptans (sulfides), which can be treated with copper or poly-mercaptans (disulfides) which will not react with copper, so deal with the problem as soon as it is detected. Copper when added to wine containing “sulfide-like” off aromas immediately reacts with H2S and form copper sulphide, immediately. If the copper ions is not removed from the wine after the treatment with the proper fining agent or filtered out, a haze may appear. Most of the time copper is added to the wine in the form of Copper Sulfate s(CuSO4 • 5 H2O), also known as Copper Sulfate solution.

    To avoid over adjustment, copper lab trial should be performed.

    Copper Addition as Copper Sulfate (CuSO4)

    Volume of wine, must, juice
    Copper rate addition
    Amount of CuSO4 to be add

    Copper Addition as Copper Sulfate solution (CuSO4• 5H2O)

    Volume of wine, must, juice
    Copper rate addition
    Concentration of Copper Sulfate solution (%w/v)
    Volume of Copper Sulfate solution to be add
  • Oak Addition

    The oak alternatives become important part of the modern winemaking, due to their ease of use and the increasing cost of new oak barrels. There are many different types of oak-alternative products such as oak chips, oak powder and oak staves. They can be added at various stages of the winemaking process, during fermentation or the aging of the wine. The benefits is that, they can give quickly specific oak flavors and aromas, more complexity, structure and some sweetness, which will be make the wine more balanced. Different types of oak alternatives can give wine different flavor component like a toasted nuts, vanilla, caramel, coffee and some toasting spiciness. Winemakers who use oak alternatives often use micro-oxygenation to help simulate the oxygen exchange of traditional oak barrels. 

    Volume of wine, must, juice
    Oak rate addition
    Amount of Oak to be add
  • Summary of Fining Agent Use

    Fining agent Dose range Purpose to be used
    Bentonite 0.1 - 1.5 g/L * Protein stabilization and clarification of white wine
    Gelatin ( mostly used in combination with Kieselsol) 10 - 50 mg/L for white wine 50 - 200 mg/L for red wine

    * Clarification, tannin and bitterness reduction in white wine

    * Tannin and astringency reduction in red wine

    Casein 50 - 250 mg/L of potassium caseinate or 1 - 10 ml/L of low fat milk * Bitterness, browning and pinking reduction in white wine * Over-oakiness reduction in white wine
    Isinglass 10 - 50 mg/L * Clarifying and polishing the white wine to brilliancy
    Egg White 1 - 3 egg whites per barrel (225L) * Softening and polishing red wine

    100 - 700 mg/L for white wine

    100 - 200 mg/L for red wine

    * Browning and pinking reduction in white wines
    * Bitterness reduction in white and red wines
    Active Carbon 30 - 250 mg/L Decolorizing and off-odors reduction in white wines
  • Weight and Volume equivalents

    Weight equivalents

    1 g = 1000 mg
    1 mg = 0.001 g
    1 µg = 0.001 mg
    1 oz = 28.35 g
    1 kg = 2.2 lbs = 1000 g
    1 lb = 16 oz = 454 g = 0.454 kg
    1 (US)ton = 2000 lbs = 907.19 kg
    1 metric ton = 2204.62 lbs = 1000 kg

    Volume equivalents

    1 L = 1000 mL
    1 dL = 10 L
    1 mL = 1000 µL
    1 hL = 100 L = 26.4 gal
    1 L = 33.8 oz = 1000 mL
    1 (US)gal = 128 oz = 3785 mL = 3.78 L
    1 qt = 32 oz = 946 mL = 0.946 L
    1 pt = 16 oz = 473 mL = 0.473 L

    Weight / Volume equivalents

    1.0 g/L = 1000 mg/L = 1000 ppm
    1.0 g/L = 0.1 g/100 mL = 100 mg/100 mL
    1.0 g/L = 1.00 mg/mL = 1000 µg/mL
    1.0 g/L = 0.1%(w/v)
    1.0 mg/L = 1ppm
    1 lb/1000 gal = 454 g/1000 gal = 0.45 g/gal.
    1 lb/1000 gal = 0.12 g/L = 12 g/hL = 120 ppm
    1 g/hL = 1 g/26.42 gal. = 0.038 g/gal.


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