Fermentation Winemaking Calculator

  • Fermentation / Brix /

    Brix (°Bx) is defined as the percentage of sugar by weight in a solution. Brix scale is important indicator for maturity of the grape. The traditional method for determination of Brix is by using hydrometer, which will measure the density (specific gravity) of the grape juice. For every gram of sugar that is converted during fermentation, about half a gram of alcohol is produced. The different yeasts strains have different levels of attenuation, so they will all convert different percentages of sugar to alcohol. 

    Brix-specific gravity

    Actual Brix of must, juice °Bx
    Specific Gravity of must, juice SG
    Sugar content of must, juice g/L

    Brix-Alcohol conversion

    Actual Brix of must, juice °Bx
    Alcohol conversion factor
    Future alcohol level of the wine %v / v

    Alcohol conversion factor can be between 0.55 - 0.64

  • Specific Gravity - Sugar Conversions

    Brix (°Bx) is a graduated scale, used on a hydrometer, which indicates the weight of sugar per volume of solution at a given temperature.

    Baume (Bé°) is a hydrometer scale used to measure the specific gravity of liquids. It’s convenient because it gives winemakers an estimate of finished alcohol levels. Both Baume (Bé°) and Brix (°Bx) scales give us a measure of soluble solids in grape juice.

    Plato (°P) is a scale that expresses the density as the percentage of sucrose by weight. It’s primarily used in brewing industry to measure density of beer wort in terms of percentage of extract by weight. 

    Oechsle (° Oe) scale is measuring the density of grape must, which is an indication of grape ripeness and sugar content used in winemaking. This measure is commonly used by winemakers to decide when to harvest grapes and to predict the maximal possible alcohol level of the finished wine. The Oechsle scale forms the basis of most of the German wine classification.

    Specific gravity of must, juice SG
    Brix of the must, juice °Bx
    Plato ot the must, juice °P
    Oechsle of the must, juice °Oe
    Baumé of the must, juice Bé°
    Sugar content of the must, juice g/L
  • Specific Gravity - Temperature correction

    Hydrometers are used by winemakers to determine the sugar content of wine, grape must and juice, and they're also used in soil analysis. For better accuracy, the reading of the hydrometers must be corrected according to the temperature because the density of a liquid changes with temperature.

    This calculator will tell you the actual specific gravity no matter what temperature the sample is.

    Actual SG of wine, must, juice
    Temperature of wine, must, juice
    Corrected SG, must, juice
  • Fermentation / Yeast /

    Yeast is naturally present on the skins of grapes and they play important role in the fermentation process, converting the sugars of grapes into alcohol. There are also many commercial yeast strains which have different microbiological, chemical, physical and sensory aspects that need to be considered, when winemakers decide which yeast selection to choose, for making different wines. The most important yeast for the wine production is those belonging to the Saccharomyces genus, cerevisiae and bayanus species. The commercial yeast strains are sold in dry vacuum packages or liquid cultures. Dry yeast strains contain viable active yeast cells and they need to be properly prepared for inoculation into grape juice. This is very important step that will insure the yeast efficiency in the fermentation process. There are hundreds of different strains of yeast, which can be use in the winemaking process and each one has their own specific profile, function and characteristics.

    Volume of must, juice
    Yeast rate addition
    Amount of Yeast to be add
  • Fermentation / Nutrients /

    Yeast nutrients in a grape juice or must are an important part of any successful and healthy fermentation. The yeast needs supply of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous also minerals and vitamins as well. These components are naturally present in the grapes, but if they are lacking there is a danger of the production of hydrogen sulphid or problematic fermentation. The simple solution for the lack of nutrients is addition of ammonium compound, such as diammonium phosphate (DAP) or ammonium sulphate and vitamin such as thiamine, which will help increase yeast viability and reduce the risk of lagging or stuck fermentation.

    Volume of must, juice
    Nutrients rate addition
    Amount of Nutrients to be add
  • Weight and Volume equivalents

    Weight equivalents

    1 g = 1000 mg
    1 mg = 0.001 g
    1 µg = 0.001 mg
    1 oz = 28.35 g
    1 kg = 2.2 lbs = 1000 g
    1 lb = 16 oz = 454 g = 0.454 kg
    1 (US)ton = 2000 lbs = 907.19 kg
    1 metric ton = 2204.62 lbs = 1000 kg

    Volume equivalents

    1 L = 1000 mL
    1 dL = 10 L
    1 mL = 1000 µL
    1 hL = 100 L = 26.4 gal
    1 L = 33.8 oz = 1000 mL
    1 (US)gal = 128 oz = 3785 mL = 3.78 L
    1 qt = 32 oz = 946 mL = 0.946 L
    1 pt = 16 oz = 473 mL = 0.473 L

    Weight / Volume equivalents

    1.0 g/L = 1000 mg/L = 1000 ppm
    1.0 g/L = 0.1 g/100 mL = 100 mg/100 mL
    1.0 g/L = 1.00 mg/mL = 1000 µg/mL
    1.0 g/L = 0.1%(w/v)
    1.0 mg/L = 1ppm
    1 lb/1000 gal = 454 g/1000 gal = 0.45 g/gal.
    1 lb/1000 gal = 0.12 g/L = 12 g/hL = 120 ppm
    1 g/hL = 1 g/26.42 gal. = 0.038 g/gal.


Be informed, subscribe for our weekly newsletter.

/ Back to Top